Ecosystems in current times are the most important units of ecological studies on earth. This is because a growing pressure over them from human as becoming increasingly dangerous, not only for the nature in itself, but also for human society.
The threats over ecosystem services go from small communities subsistence land use until global scale carbon sequestration or fisheries. These threats are continuous and are putting the human as the center of the causes and also the element in which the most of the changes will notice.
Ecosystem services are not value adequate by the markets mainly because they are in the category of public goods. Also too many of them have serious damages due to negative externalities no internalized in the production.
The adequate valuation of ecosystem services is necessary beyond the neoclassical concepts and tools of valuation. Indeed, it is needed beyond the economic valuation as an isolated activity; it is important paying attention to a reasonable assessment of the ecosystem services.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment project and The Economics of Biodiversity and Ecosystem project propone holistic methodologies for the assessment and valuation of ecosystem services. This is made with the objective of intervene in public policies for restoration, maintaining and recovering ecosystem services over time.